Fracture Toughness / Fracture Energy Data for Ceramics

NIST Standard Reference Database 138


Reference:

Reference: NIST Structural Ceramics Database

Other material collections: Property Data Summaries



Other Toughness materials

Alumina ( Al2O3 )

Material Summary:

                      [Ref. 1-9]         [Ref. 10]         [Ref. 11]         [Ref. 12]
Manufacturer........: Unknown            Smith Industries  NRL               Avco Corp.
Material Designation: alumina            alumina           alumina           alumina
Material Form.......: polycrystal        polycrystal       polycrystal       polycrystal
Composition.........: Al2O3               Al2O3             99% Al2O3          98.7% Al2O3
Processing..........: 
                      [Ref. 13,14]       [Ref. 15,16]
Manufacturer........: Unknown            In laboratory
Material Designation: alumina            alumina
Material Form.......: single crystal     polycrystal
Composition.........: Al2O3               Al2O3
Processing..........:                    sintered

References:

[1] D. B. Binns and P. Popper, "Mechanical Properties of Some Commercial Alumina Ceramics" Proceedings of the British Ceramic Society, No. 6, pp. 71-82 (1966).

[2] P. L. Pratt, "Grain Size and Fracture Toughness," Fracture, Vol. 3, pp. 909-912 (1977).

[3] R. W. Rice, S. W. Freiman, and P. F. Becher, "Grain-Size Dependence of Fracture Energy in Ceramics: I, Experiment," Journal of the American Cermic Society, Vol. 64, No. 6, pp. 345-350 (1981).

[4] H. Meredith and P. L. Pratt, "The Observed Fracture Stress and Measured Values of K(Ic) in Commercial Polycrystalline Aluminas" Proceedings of the British Ceramic Society, No. 20, pp. 107-122 (1972).

[5] S. S. Smith and B. J. Pletka, "Indentation Fracture of Single Crystal and Polycrystalline Aluminum Oxide" Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics, Vol. 6, pp. 189-209 (1983).

[6] N. Claussen, B. Mussler, and M. V. Swain, "Grain-Size Dependence of Fracture Energy in Ceramics" Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. C-14-C-16 (1982).

[7] K. Kromp and R.F. Pabst, "Application of the J Concept to Alumina at High Temperatures" Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 106-110 (1983).

[8] G. De With, "Fracture of Translucent Alumina: Temperature Dependence and Influence of CaO Dope" Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 19, pp. 2195-2202 (1984).

[9] B. Mussler, M. V. Swain, and N. Claussen, "Dependence of Fracture Toughness of Alumina on Grain Size and Test Technique" Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 65, No. 11, pp. 566-572 (1982).

[10] B.J. Dalgleish, A. Fakhr, P. L. Pratt, and R. D. Rawlings, "Acoustic Emission as a Means of Assessing the Validity of Fracture Toughness Tests" Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, pp. 1-5 (1977).

[11] J. J. Mecholsky, S. W. Freiman, and R. W. Rice, "Fracture Surface Analysis of Ceramics" Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 11, pp. 1310-1319 (1976).

[12] G. K. Bansal, "Effects of Ceramic Microstructure on Strength and Fracture Surface Energy" Microstructures, Proceedings of the Sixth International Materials Symposium, pp. 860-871 (1976).

[13] D. K. Shetty, A. R. Rosenfield, and W. H. Duckworth, "Fracture Toughness of Ceramics Measured by a Chevron-Notch Diametral-Compression Test" Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 68, No. 12, pp. C-325-C-327 (1985).

[14] M. Iwasa and R.C. Bradt, "Fracture Toughness of Single-Crystal Alumina," Advances in Ceramics, Vol. 10, pp. 767-779 (1984).

[15] J. Wang, W.M. Rainforth, T. Wadsworth, and R. Stevens, "The Effects of Notch Width on the SENB Toughness for Oxide Ceramics," Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 10, pp. 21-31 (1992).

[16] W.H. Tuan, M.J. Lai, M.C. Lin, C.C. Chan, and S.C. Chiu, "The Mechanical Performance of Alumina as a Function of Grain Size," Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 36, pp. 246-251 (1994).

Property Table:

Temperature = 23 °C
Grain    Porosity    Fracture      Fracture   Measurement  Measurement  Comments
Size                 Toughness     Energy     Method       Environment
[µm]       [%]       [MPa·m1/2]     [J/m2] 
------   --------   ------------   ---------  -----------  -----------  ----------------------------
                                                               air       Ref. 1; purity (mass fraction of Al2O3)
 50         0                         36          WOF                            99.9%
  4         1                         34          WOF                            99.5%
 15                                   54          WOF                            99.2% 
 25                                   54          WOF                            99.0% 
  5         2                         30          WOF                            95.6% 
 20         3                         29          WOF                            98.6% 
 10                                   48          WOF                            98.5% 
 30         5                         53          WOF                            97.3% 
 10        11                         25          WOF                            95.4% 
  5         9                         51          WOF                            94.5% 
  8         8                         40          WOF                            94.1% 
  8         7                         40          WOF                            94.0% 
  4         9                         40          WOF                            93.1% 
 15         8                         29          WOF                            92.9% 
 10        12                         51          WOF                            93.1% 
  8        13                         48          WOF                            87.8% 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  4                    5.5                        DCB           air       Ref. 2
 10                    5.0                        DCB
 20                    4.9                        DCB
 20                    6.4                        DCB
  4                    5.1                        DT
 10                    5.2                        DT
 20                    5.2                        DT
  4                    5.0                        SEPB                            Firings repeated manually to 
                                                                                  obtain coarser grain sizes.
 10                    4.7                        SENB
 20                    4.0                        SENB
  4                    4.5                        SENB                            Firings repeated manually to 
                                                                                  obtain coarser grain sizes.
                                                                                  Sample was blunt-notched.
 10                    4.2                        SENB
 20                    4.1                        SENB
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
120                                  4.6          AMDCB        air        Ref. 3
200                                 22.5          AMDCB
400                                  6            AMDCB    
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  3.5       11         4.56                       SENB         air        Ref. 4; Material isostatically cold 
                                                                                  pressed; starter cracks
                                                                                  were used; and E = 337 GPa
                       5.01                       CT
                       4.70                       DCB
  5.0       19         3.13                       SENB                            E = 227 GPa
                       3.32                       CT
                       3.12                       DCB
 12.0       21         2.68                       SENB                            E = 253 GPa
                       2.77                       CT
                       2.70                       DCB
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  2                    2.36                       ICS          oil        Ref. 5; E = 415 GPa
  9                    4.38                       ICS                             E = 369 GPa
  2                    5.73                       SENB
  9                    4.35                       DT
 18                    6.81                       DT
                       1.91                       ICS                             single crystal
                       2.66                       ICS                             single crystal
                       2.61                       ICS                             single crystal
                       1.68                       ICS                             single crystal
                       2.04                       ICS                             single crystal
                       2.08                       ICS                             single crystal
                       2.13                       ICS                             single crystal
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  2.5                              38             SENB        air        Ref. 6; the fracture energy value
                                                                                 is an approximate value.
  6                                25             SENB      
 13.5                              27             SENB    
 18                                21.5           SENB
 24                                20             SENB
 30                                21             SENB
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 11                    3.8                        SENB        air        Ref. 7; 97.0 % Al2O3
                                                                                + 3.0 % SiO2; E = 350 GPa
  6                    3.73                       SENB                           99.7 % Al2O3
                                                                                + 0.3 % MgO, SiO2; E = 389 GPa
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 23       0.06         3.71                       SENB        N2         Ref. 8; 0.0092% MgO,
                                                                                 0.0002% CaO; E = 406 GPa
          0.08         3.28                       SENB                           0.0092% MgO, 
                                                                                 0.0041% CaO; E = 397 GPa
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 31.4                  3.9                        SENB        air        Ref. 9; Notch radius = 70 µm
 31.4                  4.0                        SENB
 30.7                  3.8                        SENB
 30.7                  4.1                        SENB
 30.5                  3.9                        SENB
 29.0                  4.05                       SENB
 24.0                  4.0                        SENB
 23.0                  3.95                       SENB
 18.0                  4.0                        SENB
 14.5                  4.5                        SENB
 12.9                  4.5                        SENB
 12.5                  4.5                        SENB
  9.0                  4.2                        SENB
  8.8                  4.55                       SENB
  6.9                  4.65                       SENB
  5.7                  4.1                        SENB
  5.0                  4.25                       SENB
  5.0                  4.3                        SENB
  5.0                  4.5                        SENB
  5.0                  4.7                        SENB
  4.0                  5.15                       SENB
  3.0                  4.3                        SENB
  3.0                  4.5                        SENB
  3.0                  4.9                        SENB
  3.0                  5.0                        SENB
  3.0                  5.35                       SENB
  2.0                  5.15                       SENB
  2.0                  5.25                       SENB
  2.0                  5.8                        SENB
  2.0                  5.85                       SENB
  2.0                  5.9                        SENB
  1.7                  5.75                       SENB
  1.4                  6.25                       SENB
  1.4                  6.05                       SENB
  1.4                  5.9                        SENB
 30.0                  3.6                        SENB
 12.9                  4.1                        SENB
  3.0                  4.5                        SENB
  2.0                  5.3                        SENB
  1.7                  4.85                       SENB 
  1.4                  5.3                        SENB
 30.0                  5.45                       IS                       Notch radius = 40 µm
 24.0                  5.1                        IS
 23.5                  5.3                        IS
 18.0                  5.2                        IS
 14.5                  5.3                        IS
 12.5                  5.25                       IS
  8.5                  4.75                       IS
  8.0                  4.5                        IS
  7.0                  4.2                        IS
  5.0                  4.0                        IS
  5.0                  4.15                       IS
  5.0                  4.25                       IS
  2.0                  4.3                        IS
  1.5                  3.75                       IS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  4-6                  3.95                       SENB          air       Ref. 10
 10-12                 3.51                       SENB
  4-6                  4.13                       DT
  4-6                  5.4                        DCB
  10-12                5.0                        DCB
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1-10                              20            AMDCB        air        Ref. 11; Material hot pressed;
                                                                                   and E = 300 GPa
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   2        0.5                     42.2          SENB         air        Ref. 12          
                                    21.2          SENB
                                    20.1          SENB
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       2.1                        DT          dry N2      Ref. 13; H = 23.0 GPa
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       4.6                        CF           air        Ref. 14; (0001) crystal plane
                       3.2                        CF                               (10-10)
                       2.5                        CF                               (11-20)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  2.6                  4.1                        SENB         air        Ref. 15;  260 µm notch width
  2.6                  3.5                        SENB                              510 µm
  2.6                  3.2                        SENB                              800 µm
  2.6                  3.3                        SENB                             1800 µm
  4.2                  4.6                        SENB                              260 µm
  4.2                  4.3                        SENB                              510 µm
  4.2                  4.3                        SENB                              800 µm
  4.2                  4.5                        SENB                             1800 µm
  6.3                  5.5                        SENB                              260 µm
  6.3                  4.6                        SENB                              510 µm
  6.3                  4.9                        SENB                              800 µm
  6.3                  4.3                        SENB                             1800 µm
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1.8       1.8        3.0                        SEPB         air        Ref. 16
  1.9       2.1        3.4                        SEPB
  2.3       1.9        3.7                        SEPB
  3.1       1.5        4.4                        SEPB
  5.4       2.3        4.9                        SEPB
  8.7       1.5        4.9                        SEPB
 13.3       1.7        5.0                        SEPB
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------