Fracture Toughness / Fracture Energy Data for Ceramics

NIST Standard Reference Database 138


Reference:

Reference: NIST Structural Ceramics Database

Other material collections: Property Data Summaries



Other Toughness materials

Magnesium Aluminate ( MgAl2O4 )

Material Summary:

                      [Ref. 1,2,3a]         [Ref. 3b]              [Ref. 4,5,7]             [Ref. 6]
Manufacturer........: Unknown               Unknown                Unknown                Unknown
Material Designation: magnesium aluminate   magnesium aluminate    magnesium aluminate    magnesium aluminate
Material Form.......: Polycrystal           Polycrystal            Single Crystal         Single Crystal
Composition.........: MgAl2O4; also          MgAl2O4                MgAl2O4                 MgO·3.5Al2O3
  (mass fraction)      MgO·Al2O3               +0.01% CaZrO4                                 (nonstoichiometric)
Processing..........: 
                      [Ref. 8]
Manufacturer........: In laboratory
Material Designation: magnesium aluminate
Material Form.......: polycrystal
Composition.........: MgAl2O4
Processing..........: sintered

References:

[1] R. W. Rice, S. W. Freiman, and P. F. Becher, "Grain-Size Dependence of Fracture Energy in Ceramics: I, Experiment" Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 64, No. 6, pp. 345-350 (1981).

[2] R. L. Stewart and R. C. Bradt, "Fracture of Polycrystalline MgAl2O4" Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 63, No. 11-12, pp. 619-623 (1980).

[3] G. D. Swanson, "Fracture Energies of Ceramics" Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 48-49 (1972).

[4] R. L. Stewart and R. C. Bradt, "Fracture of Single Crystal MgAl2O4" Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 15, 67-72 (1980).

[5] A. G. Evans and E. A. Charles, "Fracture Toughness Determinations by Indentation" Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 59, No. 7-8, pp. 371-372 (1985).

[6] G. K. Bansal and A. H. Heuer, "Precipitation Strengthening in Non-Stoichiometric Mg-Al Spinel" Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics, Vol. 2, pp. 677-690 (1973).

[7] R. W. Rice, C. C. Wu, and K. R. McKinney, "Fracture and Fracture Toughness of Stoichiometric MgAl2O4 Crystals at Room Temperature," Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 31, pp. 1353-1360 (1996).

[8] C. Baudin, R. Martinez, and P. Pena, "High-Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Stoichiometric Magnesium Spinel," Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 78, pp. 1857-1862 (1995).

Property Table:

Temperature = 23 °C
Grain    Porosity    Fracture      Fracture   Measurement  Measurement  Comments
Size                 Toughness     Energy     Method       Environment
[µm]       [%]       [MPa·m1/2]     [J/m2] 
------   --------   ------------   ---------  -----------  -----------  --------------------------------
  1.5                                8          AMDCB          air       Ref. 1
  2                                  7.5        AMDCB         
  6                                  8          AMDCB
100                                  7          AMDCB
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  5                    1.94                     CF             air       Ref. 2; Material was hot pressed,
 12                    1.98                     CF                               and E = 258 GPa
 25                    1.83                     CF                   
 38                    1.97                     CF
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  0.3                              10.4         DCB            air       Ref. 3a; E = 241 GPa
  0.3                              11.2         DCB                           3b; E = 241 GPa
  6                                16.9         DCB                           3a; E = 241 GPa
  6                                 9.1         DCB                           3b; E = 241 GPa
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       1.18                     CF                       Ref. 4; {100} crack plane
                       1.54                     CF                               {110} crack plane
                       1.90                     CF                               {111} crack plane
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       1.3                      ICS         dry N2       Ref. 5; H = 16.0 GPa
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       1.5                      DT          toluene      Ref. 6; Plates with faces
                                                                                 parallel to {100}
                                                                                 spinel planes
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       1.0                      AMDCB          air       Ref. 7; {100} surface; <100> axis
                       1.7                      AMDCB          air               {100} surface; <110> axis
                       1.6                      AMDCB          air               {110} surface; <110> axis
                       1.2                      AMDCB          air               {111} surface; <110> axis
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1.5                  3.0                      SENB           air       Ref. 8; density = 3.491 g/cm3
                                                                                 E = 258 GPa
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------