Fracture Toughness / Fracture Energy Data for Ceramics

NIST Standard Reference Database 138


Reference:

Reference: NIST Structural Ceramics Database

Other material collections: Property Data Summaries



Other Toughness materials

Silicon Nitride ( Si3N4 )

Material Summary:

                      [Ref. 1a]          [Ref. 1b]          [Ref. 1c]          [Ref. 1d]         [Ref. 1e]                 
Manufacturer........: NRL                Toshiba            AMMRC              AMMRC             KBI     
Material Designation: silicon nitride    silicon nitride    silicon nitride    silicon nitride   silicon nitride                 
Material Form.......: polycrystal        polycrystal        polycrystal        polycrystal       Polycrystal
Composition.........: Si3N4               Si3N4              Si3N4,              Si3N4,            Si3N4
  (mass fraction)                                           19% Y2O3            13% Y2O3
Processing..........:
                      [Ref. 2,4]         [Ref. 3]           [Ref. 5,6,7]       [Ref. 8,9]          [Ref. 10]
Manufacturer........: Unknown            Norton Co.         In laboratory      In laboratory       Dow Chemical Co.
Material Designation: silicon nitride    silicon nitride    silicon nitride    silicon nitride     silicon nitride
Material Form.......: polycrystal        polycrystal        polycrystal        polycrystal         polycrystal
Composition.........: Si3N4               Si3N4              Si3N4               Si3N4               Si3N4
Processing..........:                                       hot pressed        hot isostatically   sintered
                                                                                     pressed

References:

[1] S. W. Freiman, A. Williams, J. J. Mecholsky, and R. W. Rice, "Fracture of Si3N4 and SiC" Ceramic Microstructures, pp. 824-834 (1976).

[2] G. Himsolt, H. Knoch, H. Huebner, and F. Kleinlein, "Mechanical Properties of Hot-Pressed Silicon Nitride with Different Grain Structures" Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 62, No. 1-2, pp. 29-32 (1979).

[3] A. G. Evans, and E. A. Charles, "Fracture Toughness Determinations by Indentation" Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 59, No. 7-8, p. 371-372 (1976).

[4] F. F. Lange, "Relation Between Strength, Fracture Energy, and Microstructure of Hot-Pressed Si(2)N(4)" Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 56, No. 10, 518-522 (1973).

[5] D. Chakraborty, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, and J. Mukerji, "Influence of Thermal Quenching on Surface Fracture Toughness and Microhardness of Si3N4, SiAlON, and SiC," Rev.Internationale Des Hautes Temper. et Des Refractaires, Vol. 22, pp. 105-113 (1985).

[6] T. Ohji, S. Sakai, M. Ito, Y. Yamauchi, W. Kanematsu, and S. Ito, "Fracture Energy and Tensile Strength of Silicon Nitride at High Temperatures," Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan Inter. Ed., Vol. 98, pp. 244-251 (1990).

[7] C.A. Tracy and G.D. Quinn, "Fracture Toughness by the Surface Crack in Flexure (SCF) Method," Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Vol. 15, pp. 837-845 (1994).

[8] I. Tanaka, G. Pezzotti, T. Okamoto, and Y. Miyamoto, "Hot Isostatic Press Sintering and Properties of Silicon Nitride without Additives," Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 72, pp. 1656-1660 (1989).

[9] O. Unal, J.J. Petrovic, and T.E. Mitchell, "Mechanical Properties of Hot Isostatically Pressed Si3N4 and Si3N4/SiC composites," Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 8, pp. 626-634 (1993).

[10] G. D. Quinn, J. J. Swab, and M. D. Hill, "Fracture Toughness by the Surface Crack in Flexure (SCF) Method: New Test Results," Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Vol. 18 (4), pp. 163-172 (1997).

Property Table:

Temperature = 23 °C
Grain    Porosity    Fracture      Fracture   Measurement  Measurement  Comments
Size                 Toughness     Energy     Method       Environment
[µm]       [%]       [MPa·m1/2]     [J/m2] 
------   --------   ------------   ---------  -----------  -----------  --------------------------------
1-3                                  54         AMDCB         air        Ref. 1a; Major additives/impurities
                                                                                  were ZrC, ZrO2 or Zr. 
1-3                     8.3         110         AMDCB                         1b; Major additives/impurities
                                                                                  were Y2O3, Al2O3
1-3                     7.2          85         AMDCB                         1c; Major additive/impurity was
                                                                                  19% Y2O3          
1-3                                 109         AMDCB                         1d; Major additive/impurity was
                                                                                  13% Y2O3
1-3                                  52         AMDCB                         1e; Major additive/impurity was Mg
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                        3.2                     SENB         air          Ref. 2; E = 317.5 GPa
                                     16.5       WOF                   
                        4.96                    SENB                              E = 311.1 GPa
                                     30.4       WOF
                        7.81                    SENB                              E = 302.8 GPa
                                     67.8       WOF
                        6.59                    SENB                              E = 309.6 GPa
                                     47.4       WOF                            
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                        4.9                     ICS        dry N2         Ref. 3; Material was hot pressed with
                                                                                  MgO; H = 14.1 GPa; nu = 0.27
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                                     69.5       DCB         air           Ref. 4; High alpha phase in starting 
                                                                                  powder; density = 3.20 g/cm^2
                                     39.6       DCB                               High alpha phase in starting
                                                                                  powder; density = 3.24 g/cm^2
                                     29.2       DCB                               High alpha phase in starting
                                                                                  powder; density = 3.18 g/cm^2
                                     54.4       DCB                               High alpha phase in starting
                                                                                  powder; density = 3.18 g/cm^2
                                     31.0       DCB                               High alpha phase in starting
                                                                                  powder; density = 3.01 g/cm^2
                                     15.8       DCB                               High beta phase in starting 
                                                                                  powder; density = 3.24 g/cm^2
                                     42.5       DCB                               Commerical hot-pressed 
                                                                                  material; density = 3.18 g/cm^2
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                        4.1                     ICS          air          Ref. 5; H = 20 GPa
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        4.5                     CNB          air          Ref. 6; 3.20 g/cm^3
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    <5 4.7 scf air ref. 7; 3.10 g />cm^3; E = 248 GPa
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        3.12                    ICS          air          Ref. 8; E = 312 GPa; H = 14.6 GPa
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                        2.7                     ICS          air          Ref. 9; H = 24 GPa
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                        6.75                    SCF          air          Ref. 10; self-reinforced; E = 306 GPa; 
                                                                                   density = 3.20 g/cm3
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