IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database
NIST Standard Reference Database 106

Glass Ball as Bullet Solubility System: 1,1-Dichloroethene (1,1-dichloroethylene) with Water.

   (1) 1,1-Dichloroethene (1,1-dichloroethylene); C2H2Cl2; [75-35-4]  NIST Chemistry WebBook for detail
   (2) Water; H2O; [7732-18-5]  NIST Chemistry WebBook for detail

   A. L. Horvath, Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, Runcorn, U.K.

Critical Evaluation:

        The 1,1-dichloroethene (1) and water (2) binary system is treated in two parts; part 1 is 1,1-dichloroethene (1) in water (2) and part 2 is water (2) in 1,1-dichloroethene.
      Part 1. The solubility of 1,1-dichloroethene (1) in water (2) has been reported in 13 publications with only partially consistent results. The original data in these publications are compiled in the Compilation Sheets immediately following this Critical Evaluation. Among the 13 publications there are three secondary sources,1-3 which do not include details on the origin of data, method of experimental determinations, and the purity of the components. Nevertheless, these three sources of information can not be disregarded. The likely origin of the solubility data are from industrial reports, bulletins, or brochures.
     The data reported in the early publications1,2 together with that of McConnell et al. (ref. 4), Pearson and McConnell,5 and Howe et al.6 are substantially lower than all other studies and are rejected. The datum of Warner et al.7 at 298.15 K is substantially higher than the selected value and is therefore rejected. The data of Wiener8 at 298.15 K and at two difference pressures (450 and 590 mmHg) must be classified as tentative pending further studies. The interested reader is referred to the relevant Compilation Sheet for the experimentally determined solubility values.
     The remaining data of Jaeger and Stringer,9 DeLassus and Schmidt,10 Leighton and Calo,11 Kirk-Othmer,3 McNally and Grob,12 and Gossett13 in the temperature range between 275.65 and 363.65 K are generally in reasonable agreement.
     The available solubility data of 1,1-dichloroethene in water were first evaluated by DeLassus and Schmidt10 in 1981. They found that the solubility has been measured only for a narrow temperature interval of 277.15-298.15 K and the scatter of the data was considerable. Consequently, they have determined the solubility between 288.15 and 363.65 K. They found that the solubility is nearly constant over the measured temperature interval.
     The measured data are shown, along with the regression curve, in Fig. 7 as a function of temperature.
     The experimental data discussed above9-13 have been correlated, with equal weight for each of the data points, using a normal polynomial equation to give the following mass percent (1) relation:

Solubility [100 w1] = 6.27413 – 3.8257 × 10–2 (T/K) + 6.04607 × 10–5 (T/K)2.

The above equation, representing the combined data, yielded a standard deviation of 3.13 × 10–2. The curve obtained from the smoothing equation shows a distinct minimum at 316.44 K as see in Fig. 7. The recommended mass percent and mole fraction solubility values at 5 K intervals for 1,1-dichloroethene in water are presented in Table 1.
      Part 2. The solubility of water (2) in 1,1-dichloroethene (1) has been reported in three secondary sources1-3 only. They neither disclosed the original sources nor described the experimental methods and purity of components. Two sources2,3 reported identical solubilities of 0.035 [100 w2] at 298.15 K, while the third reference (Ref. 1) gives the solubility of 0.4 [100 w2] at 293.15 K. This latter value is too high and consequently it is rejected. The solubility values of 0.035 [100 w2] at 298.15 K is classified as tentative.
     There are no other experimental data for comparison. It is difficult to assess the deviation of this value from the true solubility, however, it may be considerably in excess of 10 %.

Experimental Data:   (Notes on the Nomenclature)

Table 1. Recommended solubility of 1,1-dichloroethylene (1) in water (2)
t/°CT/K102 * Mass Fraction w1104 * Mole Fraction x1
View Figure 1 for this Evaluation

References: (Click a link to see its experimental data associated with the reference)

   1  Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York 5, p. 178 (1964).
   2  Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, 1st ed., Wiley, New York 14, p. 542 (1971).
   3  Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd ed., Wiley, New York 23, p. 765 (1983).
   4  McConnell, G.; Ferguson, D.M.; Pearson, C.R., Endeavour 1975, 34, 13-8.
   5  Pearson, C.R.; McConnell, G., Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 1975, 189, 305-32.
   6  Howe, G.B.; Mullins, M.E.; Rogers, T.N., AFESC Tyndall Air Force Base, Report ESL-TR-86-66, Vol. 1, Florida, Sept. 1987, 86 pp. (AD-A188 571).
   7  Warner, H.P.; Cohen, J.M.; Ireland, J.C., Determination of Henry's Law Constants of Selected Priority Pollutants, U. S. EPA Technical Report, PB87-212684, Cincinnati, OH., July 1987.
   8  Wiener, H., J. Polymer Sci. 7, 1-20 (1951).
   9  Jaeger, J.; Stringer, W., in Vinylidene Chloride Monomer, Dow Chemical U.S.A., Circular, No. 102-232-72 (1972).
   10  DeLassus, P.T.; Schmidt, D.D., J. Chem. Eng. Data 26, 274 (1981).
   11  Leighton, D.T.; Calo, J.M., J. Chem. Eng. Data 1981, 26, 382-5.
   12  McNally, M.E.; Grob, R.L., J. Chromatogr. 1984, 284, 105-16.
   13  Gossett, J.M., Environ. Sci. Technol. 1987, 21, 202-8.